Prevent, Promote, and Protect your Health with the Lake County General Health District
(440) 350-2543
5966 Heisley Rd
Mentor, Ohio 44060

Private Water Systems

The Health District goal in the Private Water System (PWS) program is to ensure that residents utilizing a private water system with have safe (potable) drinking water.  The Board of Health is responsible to enforce the Ohio Administrative Code Chapter 3701-28 that governs the construction, inspection, installation, development, maintenance and sealing (abandonment) of private water systems. Private water systems service homes and certain non-residential supplies and can consist of a well, cistern, spring, pond or hauled water tanks or a combination of such supplies. Water supplies require routine maintenance and should be sampled at least once a year and analyzed for total coliform bacteria.

Access the Ohio Private Water System Rules:

Private Water System Permit forms

Registered Tri County Area Private Water System Contractors

Information on Bacteriological Water Analysis

Total coliform bacteria are “indicator” organisms whose presence at certain levels indicates the potential presence of disease causing organisms. Total coliform bacteria are not normally harmful by themselves to healthy individuals.  Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria are found in the intestines of humans and animals therefore the presence of E. coli indicates fecal contamination of the water. Water with fecal contamination should not be consumed until the water supply has been properly disinfected and a resample result is zero for E. coli. The presence or absence of total coliform or E. coli does not indicate the chemical quality of the water. The Maximum Contaminant Level (standard) for a PWS without continuous disinfection is 4 or less total coliform and zero E. coli organisms per 100 ml. of water.  The Maximum Contaminant Level (standard) for a PWS that requires continuous disinfection and/or filtration is zero total coliform and zero E. coli organisms per 100 ml. of water.

Private Water System Water Sample Request Form    

Ground Water Resources in Lake County

The amount of water that a well can produce depends on the local geology of the area, the amount of recharge to the aquifer, the design of the well and to a lesser extent the proximity of neighboring wells.  According to the National Water Well Association a low yield well is one that cannot maintain a discharge rate of five gallons per minute (GPM) for extended periods of time.  Lake County is a poor county for ground water production.  Much of the county is underlain with shale bedrock.  A shale bedrock aquifer is very dense and generally produces small quantities of water.  This water is typically highly mineralized, containing significant concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and often times sulfates.  Water treatment devices are usually necessary to remove these minerals.

These devices usually require water for maintenance of the equipment.  The quantity of water required depends on the type of equipment, the severity of the water problem and the quantity of water used daily.  A conventional water softener requires 100 to 300 gallons of water during regeneration.  It is very important to include the amount of water needed for water treatment maintenance when considering water storage needs.  It is important to note that a water well usually produces less water over time and use.  When designing storage capacity it is important to consider the yield of the well over time.

The following links provide general information on the common water quality problems in well water and maintenance:

Where to find the well log for your well

Hydrogen Sulfide (rotten egg odor in a water)

Nitrates/Nitrites in well water

For Information Concerning Oil & Gas Well Drilling (can it affect a water well)

Ohio Department of Health Gas Well Drilling Information

Well Sampling Before Drilling for Oil & Gas Fact Sheet


Ground Water Awareness Week March 5-11, 2017

Collage of sprinkler head, wet leaf and kitchen faucet Much of the water we use comes from the ground. Learn more about ground water, the threats to its safety and how to protect your own ground water sources during Ground Water Awareness Week.

Clean water is one of the world’s most precious resources. People use water every day for a variety of reasons, such as drinking, bathing, recreation, agriculture, cooling, industry, and medical uses. Although water plays an essential role in every person’s life, many individuals are not aware that much of their water comes from the ground.

National Ground Water Awareness Week, an annual observance sponsored by the National Ground Water Association (NGWA), is March 5-11, 2017. The purpose of this observance is to stress how important ground water is to the health of all people and the environment.1

Woman drinking glass of waterAll groundwater sources should be protected from contamination.

Ground Water Contamination

Ground water is water that is located below the surface of the earth in spaces between rock and soil. Ground water supplies water to wells and springs and is a substantial source of water used in the United States. Thirty percent of all available freshwater comes from ground water,2 which supplies a significant amount of water to community water systems and private wells.3

Protecting ground water sources from contamination is an important priority for countries throughout the world, including the United States. Most of the time, ground water sources in the United States are safe to use and not a cause for worry. However, ground water sources can become contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites, and chemicals that can lead to sickness and disease.

Ground water contaminants sometimes occur naturally in the environment (for example, arsenic and radon), but are more often the result of human activities. These activities include incorrect use of fertilizers and pesticides; poorly sited, constructed or maintained septic systems; improper disposal or storage of wastes; resource extraction; and chemical spills at industrial sites.4 From 1971 to 2006, 54% of reported drinking water outbreaks were due to the use of untreated ground water (31%) or ground water treatment deficiencies (23%). The most common pathogens identified in ground water outbreaks during this period included Shigella spp., hepatitis A virus, norovirus, Giardiaintestinalis, Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp.5 In 2009-2010, contamination of groundwater with parasites (Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp.), bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7), and viruses (Norovirus, Hepatitis A) led to a number of reported outbreaks.6

The presence of pathogens and chemicals in our drinking water can lead to health problems, including gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders.6, 7 Infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people whose immune systems are compromised because of AIDS, chemotherapy, or transplant medications may be especially susceptible to illness from certain contaminants. Concerns for ground water contaminants have led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and individual states to develop new regulations to protect ground water in public water systems (the Ground Water Rule).

Water towerWater infrastructure requires regular maintenance.

WellPrivate well owners should have their water tested annually.

Is your household in either of these categories?

Are you among the almost 90 million Americans who get their tap water from a community water system that uses ground water?

Seventy-seven percent of community water systems in the United States use ground water as their primary source, supplying drinking water to 30% of community water system users, or almost 90 million Americans.8 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets maximum concentration levels for many water pollutants and regulates drinking water quality in public water systems, including community water systems. You can find out more about your local drinking water quality and possible contaminants by viewing your consumer confidence report (CCR), which every utility company is required to provide to its customers.

Are you among the 13 million American households who have their own private wells?

An estimated 13 million American households get their water from private ground water wells, which are not subject to EPA regulations.9 Private ground water wells can provide safe, clean water. However, well water may be or become contaminated, leading to illness. It is the responsibility of the well owner to maintain their well and have the water tested on the recommended annual basis in order to ensure their water is safe from harmful contaminants.10 State and local health departments have resources available to help homeowners protect groundwater.


  1. National Ground Water Association. National Ground Water Awareness Week: March 8-14, 2015.
  2. USGS. Earth’s Water Distribution. Updated March 2014.
  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Public Drinking Water Systems: Facts and Figures. Updated April 2012.
  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water from Household Wells; 2002. [1.61 MB].
  5. Craun GF, Brunkard JM, Yoder JS, Roberts VA, Carpenter J, Wade T, Calderon RL, Roberts JM, Beach MJ, Roy SL. Causes of outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States from 1971 to 2006. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23:507-28.
  6. CDC. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water and Other Nonrecreational Water — United States, 2009–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(35):714-20.
  7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water Contaminants: List of Contaminants and Their Maximum Contaminant Level (MCLs). Updated June 2013.
  8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Fiscal Year 2010 Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics [115 KB]. Updated in 2012.
  9. U.S. Census Bureau. 2011 American Housing Survey. Plumbing, Water, and Sewage Disposal – All Occupied Units (National) [26 MB]. July 2013.
  10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Private Drinking Water Wells: What You Can Do. Updated March 2012.
Content provided and maintained by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Please see the system usage guidelines and disclaimer.